A fiberglass linear rod has a character that can be bent and distribute load during it is bent. It is a lightweight material and easy to assemble and disassemble as needed. Studying different radii per the number of rod that is bent gives collapsible degree and structural quality for the construction system. Also, since the rod has only one direction movement, it is easy to control the bending form depends on the joint that can hold various types of neighbor rods.
A collapsible structure is able to be folded into a small space. When the linear members are bent and gathered in one joint , the bending structure can be collapsible construction system. It is easy to carry so that it can be stored while not used and convenient for the temporal usage. The direction of collapse is determined by the number of rod in one joint, for example, a model is expanded and folded in one direction if two rods are met in a joint, whereas, a model is expanded in two directions if three rods are met in a joint.
A basic module is comprised with three linear rods, one rod acts as a compression and two rods support for a tension force and three rods are held in one joint from bottom and top. By holding rods in one foot, the module minimizes touching to the ground, and three rods in the middle provides the widest occupiable space as a floating condition. The footage of occupiable space shapes in triangle and the floor structure is positioned after the bending structure is made. For the variety of function, an enclosed cell can be inserted such as restroom, storage or view pocket. Also, stretchable surface can be applied on top of the bending structure for shading function.
The project “Constructed Cloud” showcases a specific application of the methodology in the research paper “A SYSTEMIZED AGGREGATION WITH GENERATIVE GROWTH MECHANISM IN SOLAR ENVIRONMENT”. The growth mechanism is driven by a parameter defined by the Geographic Information System (GIS). Specifically, the potential sites are office buildings in New York City that are under fifteen-story heights with leftover air right in restriction of reconstruction. An area of seed growth within a sphere of the DLA system is circumscribed by the range of the sun vector, whose direction is perpendicular to the designated volume and the area that is capable of daylight inflows for at least three hours per day. Then the data-responsive aggregation system is operated according to the specific environmental conditions.
The project started with finding aggregation system. The DLA model constructed using solar data is developed by exploring geometry studies in Platonic solids and Archimedean solids. Among the eighteen solids, the geometry of truncated octahedron offers a high degree of density because the distance from a center point of one truncated octahedron cell to another is relatively shorter than other solids. One unit is shaped into an asymmetric form after transformation, consequently, the clusters within the DLA model are capable of creating different configurations depends on circumstance by rotating, mirroring or duplicating units as a rule of minimal surface aggregation. Therefore, the various configurations enable the unit within each cluster to a range of different direction.
The aggregated model is placed on the lattice system of the truncated octahedron, so the unit spaces of each cluster are accessible from the same floor level and circulation stairs. These spaces contain a skip floor type office (4 modules), a trail type office (6 modules), a lattice type office (6 modules), a ring type office (8 modules) and a switchback type office.
The main idea of planning is to create a non-hierarchy/ emergent system between 4 different firms to share programs equally. Hexagonal configuration is formed both on horizontal and vertical orientation. Horizon hexagons increase the access from one room to the other room, vertical hexagons support the structure stable, create a flexible wall and non-hierarchy access in floors.
There are many polyhedron shapes to accommodate for identical plan and elevation, Triangular antiprism, Rhombic dodecahedron and Truncated Tetrahedron are studied with geometry, area and height. By composing and decomposing truncated tetrahedrons, new configuration rule is found which is different from hexagon grid. New rule follows along orthogonal grid. By assembling cell in different con- figuration, there will be more flexible and various plan layout.
One loop volume will wrap the building and serve both as a terrace, circulation and multi-space area.
Weaving each space creates a better spatial qualities. By having the loop volume, building with different programs can be more linked each other, and it should be shown on section clearly.
The function of co working office is classified into three different spaces. 1. General office is operated by small firms or individual who rent desks and utilities. 2. Since the building is surrounded by residential area, hourly office is operated, that homeworkers or telecommuters can reserve rooms in advance then use office as need. 3. For the people who visit to Polk Street with friends or colleagues during evening, soft office is provided, so that they can talk and enjoy.
Three major programs, bakery, event space and co-working office, are designated into public, semi-public, and private space. Even though these three programs need different security level and users, they are also linked as a multi space. To understand programs’ relation and function, there are some lists needed to be consider in progress. Program strategy should be shown on plan clearly.
In geometry, the truncated tetrahedron is an Archimedean solid. It has 4 regular hexagonal faces, 4 equilateral triangle faces, 12 vertices and 18 edges (of two types). It can be constructed by truncating all 4 vertices of a regular tetrahedron at one third of the original edge length.
A deeper truncation, removing a tetrahedron of half the original edge length from each vertex, is called rectification. The rectification of a tetrahedron produces an octahedron. (extracted from wikipedia)
S:NAP performs with two different conditions, bending upward or downward. With a relatively small force, the triangle pieces attached at the middle part of the body are deformed by flipping the entire body.
- to turn over by throwing it up in the air with a quick movement - to cause to turn or turn over quickly - to move with a quick light movement
By using the flipping condition, the object can perform two different conditions. Flipping enables to deform the object with a small force. One object consists of 3 pieces, which demands many joint conditions and it can’t be unfolded as a flat. The object requires a specific size and proportion to be flipped. So, it limits a variation of shape.
When a basic cell is put together with another cell horizontally, it naturally creates a triangle between one cell to the other. Through this aggregation, the combined cells create 3-dimensional triangular geometry and can perform together. With one force at one point, the combined cells flip together with creating different opening shapes, such as undulated opening, clustered opening and stepped opening.
The objective of the game is reaching from the end to the other end while opponent blocks the way of pathway. Each player can place one object at one time except for the first piece of block which is will be placed by opponent. Before the starting the game, each player will be given the 2 or 3 different designated border from the player. When the passage way is blocked, players will add another direction from different point by adding the new pieces on the top of the one module.
The Tower is a hybrid structural system constructed from stacking and overlapping glass fiber reinforced plastic rods embedded in a bespoke knitted membrane made from high tenacity yarn. Knitting technique enables the inclusion of detailing for joining and tensioning the system into the membrane itself. The tower is a form-active structural system exploring the potential of combining bending and tensile members for architectural design.
The concept of resilience is chosen as a primary design driver in the project. Resilience is understood here as the ability to recover a form from adjustments and changes from external stimuli. Specifically, this implies withstanding not just self weight but live loads such as wind. The design strategy is to develop “soft structures” where resilience may be defined as a material that absorbs energy when it is deformed elastically, and then to release the energy when unloading. In addition, extra pointed surface tension and interconnectivity between segmented surfaces allow to resist external lateral forces. Both the digital and physical morphological, and structural simulation were involved in the process.
3d printed joinery system enables fast construction during prototyping and customization. The design of holder parts focuses on its shape. Among the faceted solid triangle, curved cap, and ring type, the ring type is selected as the final holder geometry because it was the most durable model. The selected fabric holder shape was also experimented with infill ratio of a 3d printer. Higher infill ratio causes longer production time, lower infill ratio results in weaker structural quality. The optimized production is followed by 60 percent infill printing at maximum strength, enduring 24 kilogram per pointed tension force.
SHAPE GRAMMER OF ELASTIC DEFORMATION
The Breathing Surface project aims to research on bringing mechanical ventilation system onto the building surface while both satisfying visual clearance and stimulating the natural ventilation. There have been many efforts to enhance indoor air quality by using natural system which is directly related to both physical and psychological human health human. With the development of the modern mechanical ventilation system, older buildings have been retrofitted with these mechanisms. Unfortunately, these modern retrofits not only spoil the building facade but also the urban scape. In addition, such artificial air control system bring about environmental concerns such as urban heat island effect and excessive energy consumption. To address this problem , this project’s intension is to produce a three-dimensional trap which serves as a fresh air conduit on a glass surface.
The multidimensional shape of glass will strength the structural role of the surface through digital design technique. The glass mock-up were tested and fabricated with different type of polycarbonate in 1:1 scale by using Vacuum forming and Milling machines. In order to increase the accuracy of this design research, virtual or actual temperature and strength test was preceded with assistance from the building science team.
The prototype goes through a series of digital fabrication and computation design. The challenge of this process is laminating PETG sheets which cause leaking liquid between two surface. After two sheets of PETG are laminated, the chemical material (Sodium Acetate or PNIPAM) is injected into the conduit.
The Engineered Column project intends to research on vertically adjustable column system while satisfying both structural quality and beauty of ornamental element. The project utilizes the origami system as a geometric methodology, that a thin and pliable surface transforms into 3-dimensional folding volume which gives rise to not only structural rigidity but also deployable movement with one simple force input. Along with the deployable and lightweight column, the outcome of volume generates exquisite moment by overlapping tessellated surface. In addition, through analyzing and predicting the possible transformation of geometry, the implementation of aesthetic layers with pattern, color and texture juxtaposition on the volume can create a richer spatial quality and a multilateral drawing in a quality of aesthetics. The research on basic tessellation and aesthetic pattern strategy is conducted by generative algorithmic tool. Kangaroo Physics and Freeform Origami work to simulate both structural relevance as a column and geometry’s folding behavior. Physical mock-up will investigate deforming conditions along the fold line from different sheet materials for the use of 1:1 scale model. And, the exercise also includes pattern applications with different fabrication methodology by using Zund and Laser Cutting machines at the College of Environmental Design. Also, it is necessary to research various assemble and hinge conditions of systematic movement for the adjustable column. These digital and physical experimental research will incorporate collapsibility, movement and aesthetic value into the Engineered column of prototypes.
The Pavilion is recently completed. Based on newly analyzed principles from the constructional morphology of sand dollars, an elastically bent and robotic sewn material system was developed. The design will consist of 150 locally custom laminated lightweight beech wood components. In order to combine these ultra-thin plywood strips into a structurally stable configuration, newly developed robotic sewing techniques are applied in a mold-less production process.
As a research fellow, I was involved in the design research and fabrication pocess such as segment design, material design and joint design. The role in the project was from digital modeling and analysis of wood bending structure to the robotic fabrication that also requires a material research of curved geometry and cell joinery system.
The project began from the research of material computation and elastic deformation of wood. The segment studies show possible bending radii of various direction and thickness of developable surface. Laminating two veneers of beech wood in different grain angle enables to achieve different bending radii in one loop, and it is proven in SoFiSTIK software simulation. Once the pieces the segment configuration are laminated, they are tightened by finger joint by X-crossing ties lace technique.